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sanriku project | 志津川市后海嘯重建設計

Format | 形式: Research as part of the Harvard for Japan group | 美國哈佛大學日本后海嘯重建小組
Year | 年份: 2012
Type | 類型: urban masterplan | 城市規劃
Size | 規模: 20 ha | 20公頃
Location | 地點: Shizugawa (Minami Sanriku), Miyagi, Japan | 日本,宮城縣,志津川市
Harvard for Japan design team | 設計團隊: Chen Chen, Kenya Endo, Takuya Iwamura, Miho Mazereeuw, Josh Margul, Sky Milner, Nicola Saladino, Tristie Tajima, Jean You

 
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On 11 March 2011 the strongest earthquake in the history of Japan hit Tohoku, generating a tsunami that killed 24.000 people and completely destroyed almost 100.000 households.
In response to the disaster, the Harvard for Japan group was soon created as a multi-disciplinary team of researchers and designers that offered support to the affected regions during the reconstruction process.

2011年3月11日日本東北地方爆發該國歷史上最強烈的地震與海嘯,造成超過2.4萬人死亡,摧毀了10萬多戶家庭。

來自不同領域的研究員與設計師共同成立了Harvard for Japan組織,對受災地區的重建事業提供支持。

 
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With Harvard for Japan, we joined a one-month workshop with the local government and city planning consultants on the new masterplan of Shizugawa, a city of 18.000 inhabitants that had been almost annihilated by the tsunami.
When we started our project, the local authorities had already taken most of the strategic decisions and we were asked to operate within a set framework of functional zones, dividing our work in four main themes: residential, commercial, industrial and park.

2012年夏,reMIX也成為Harvard for Japan一員, 參入到當地政府與城市規劃機構組織的,為期一個月的志津川市重建工作坊。這個有1.8萬人口的城市幾乎被海嘯完全摧毀。
項目的初始階段,當地規劃部門已經完成了大部分戰略性政策,我們在已有的總規框架中工作并提出改進方案。工作劃分成四個主要板塊:住宅、商業區、工業區和公園。

 
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4/10 slope analysis and definition of the buildable areas


reMIX worked on the new residential neighborhoods, which were planned to move from the costal plane to the adjacent hills. The initial masterplan defined three major zones for such relocation, with a scheme that implied a deep modification of the original topography (i.e. flattening all the hilltops in order to build on flat grounds) and would require long and very expensive earthworks.

reMIX負責住宅部分的設計:根據規劃,原先位于海岸低地的住宅計劃遷往臨近的山丘高地。已有的總體規劃劃定了三個住宅新區,但規劃的位置決定該工程將涉及大量土方移動(例如,將山頂夷為平地,以便創造足夠可供建設的大片平地),這個方案需要的時間長,成本也高。

 
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5/10 main road infrastructure


From the analysis of the current conditions, we were able to identify some areas, within the planned residential zones, where the slopes are low enough to allow construction with minor interventions in the topography. This led to the creation of a parametric model of terraces and buildings that optimizes the earthworks and creates a flexible infrastructure for the urbanization of the hills. Different prototypes of soil-retention and building typologies are then associated to various slope conditions. Parameters such as minimum and maximum plot sizes, setback, building dimensions, solar orientation etc. informed such analysis.

通過對地形現狀的分析,我們在規劃住宅區中確定出一些坡度較緩的地區,盡量減少對地形進行的改變。我們編寫了坡地轉為臺地及建筑的程序,利用參數化模型,優化土方工程,并提出一個更加順應地勢、更高效的路網基礎設施。

 
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6/10 terracing system prototypes and functional ranges


By combining different slopes with specific typologies, such system would not only minimize the costs of urbanization, but it would also create a multifunctional and differentiated neighborhood, avoiding the homogeneity that often arises from large scale developments built at once in uniform conditions.
Finally, a terracing system instead of the complete flattening of the hilltop would also allow a faster and more flexible implementation of the infrastructure as the neighborhood could grow through different independent phases.

我們提出不同的擋土墻和建筑類型的設計,以適應局部不同的坡度。在設計過程中我們所控制的主要參數包括:最小和最大的宅基地面積,建筑退紅線距離,建筑尺度,建筑朝向等。

 
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7/10 parcels typological catalogue


From the analysis of the current conditions, we were able to identify some areas, within the planned residential zones, where the slopes are low enough to allow construction with minor interventions in the topography. This led to the creation of a parametric model of terraces and buildings that optimizes the earthworks and creates a flexible infrastructure for the urbanization of the hills. Different prototypes of soil-retention and building typologies are then associated to various slope conditions. Parameters such as minimum and maximum plot sizes, setback, building dimensions, solar orientation etc. informed such analysis.

對應不同坡度設計不同建筑類型的策略不僅幫助降低城市化的成本,還可以創造出一個多功能、多樣化的城市空間,避免一次性建設的大規??⑾钅客吹那宦?。

 
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8/10 building prototype


By combining different slopes with specific typologies, such system would not only minimize the costs of urbanization, but it would also create a multifunctional and differentiated neighborhood, avoiding the homogeneity that often arises from large scale developments built at once in uniform conditions.
Finally, a terracing system instead of the complete flattening of the hilltop would also allow a faster and more flexible implementation of the infrastructure as the neighborhood could grow through different independent phases.

這個基于臺地的城市系統,因為不需要完全將山頂鏟平,將允許重建工作更快,更靈活并且分階段地進行。

 
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9/10 terracing system: general view
 
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10/10 terracing system: general view