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1 / 20 view from central park


link-ed(u) | 多重互聯

Year | 年份: 2018
Location | 地點: Shenzhen, China | 中國深圳
Status | 狀態: competition winner | 競賽中標

Type | 類型: architecture | 建筑
Program | 功能: education | 教育
Size | 規模: 105,263 sqm | 105,263平方米
Client | 業主: Futian Middle School | 福田中學

Team | 團隊: Chen Chen (陳忱),Federico Ruberto, Nicola Saladino, Lv Shoutuo(呂守拓),Chen Muzhi(陳牧之),Duan Jintong(段錦童),Wang Yiren(王翊人),Liu Yangyang(劉楊洋),Xu Bingling(徐冰凌),Chen Si(陳思),Chen Yuxuan(陳宇軒),Tan Lu (譚露)

Competition Organizer | 競賽總策劃: Futian Urban Planning, Land and Resources Commission of Shenzhen Municipality | 深圳市規劃和國土資源委員會福田管理局

 
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2 / 20 urban context


In order to make more space to accommodate the fast growing number of students, Futian District of Shenzhen City is ushering in a new round of construction of primary and secondary schools. In February 2018, the Futian Authority of Shenzhen Municipal Planning and Land Resources Committee launched an international competition named “8+1 - Futian New Campus Action Plan”. The competition invited architects to explore new school typologies that manage to mediate two factors: high-density urban environments and the subtropical climate of Shenzhen. Proposals should address the changing educational system, rethinking what a school is, its norms, and proposing new hybrid typologies in which the function of mediation and sharing between schools and their adjacent communities must be prioritized.

為緩解學位緊張,深圳市福田區正迎來新一輪的中小學校建設高潮。2018年2月,深圳市規劃與國土資源委員會福田管理局發布福田新校園行動計劃 “8+1”建筑聯展,以國際設計競標的方式為位于福田區的九所中小學及幼兒園征集校園設計方案。針對福田區集約土地、高密度的城市狀況,通過設計管理體制創新,聯展邀請優秀建筑師與教育界和社會各界密切合作,積極探討高密度時代學校新建筑類型建構和空間創新,一同探索理性反思校園規范,適應新的教育模式改革,重建人與自然的連接,為學校與社區分時共享創造條件,創造屬于深圳亞熱帶氣候和高密度城市環境的校園建筑類型。

 
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3 / 20 site strategy


Futian School is one of the largest high schools in Shenzhen, and will host a rising number of students from 2,600 to 3,000, providing all students with accomodation within its original site boundary (41,461 sqm), expanding its gross floor area from 33,656 to 100,000 sqm (the FAR will reach 3.87 — this extreme density is 2-3 times more than any ordinary school typology in China), making Futian School the most challenging case among all 9 school projects involved in the competition. The school site is located in the centre of Futian district, a site that faces on its west side the Central Park. In addition to the ultra-high FAR, the site is tightly surrounded by high-rises on the north, east and south sides, making it a complex urban environment.

福田中學是深圳特區內規模最大的高級中學之一,將在占地41461平米的原校址通過新的校園設計將學位規模從2600人擴充至3000人,同時也借此機遇增加3000學生的住宿空間,升級成為一所擁有60個行政班的全寄宿制學校,校內建筑面積也將由33656平方米增至100000平方米。400米跑道操場是福田中學體育教育的核心設施,也是周邊2公里范圍內唯一的標準田徑場。超大的目標總建筑量使得除去田徑場外建筑用地上的容積率達到3.87,是普通中學的兩三倍,因此被稱為此次競賽九所學校中的“高密度之王”。該校校址處于福田中心區,與場地西側的福田中心公園一路之隔。除場地本身的超高建設強度要求之外,基地北、東、南三面高層緊貼環繞,處于一個非常復雜而高密度的城市環境中。如何在如此高密度的地段內營造一個親切宜人充滿想象力的校園空間,對參賽各方而言都是一個巨大的挑戰。

 
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4 / 20 massing process


A 100,000 sqm school campus located in the very center of the dense urban fabric requires a set of crucial design decisions that address strategically the series of relationships involved: the relation in between the multiple building volumes, as well as the relation between the campus and its immediate urban context. We decided thus to place the football field in the West half of the site, while the building volumes lay on the East, forming with their proximal context a continuous and smooth skyline. The field is rotated 15 degrees anti-clockwise, an operation that allowed the creation, at the southwest corner, of a welcoming spatial interface, a covered plaza open towards the adjacent street.

每座校園都是一座小城市。這所位于高密度城市中心區的校園在設計初始即要求建筑師做出一系列的關鍵性設計決策,不僅考慮紅線內各建筑體量之間的相互關系,并且策略性地處理校園與其所在城市街區的關系??悸塹揭延諧鞘屑±磯呶韉偷奶旒氏?,我們維持了田徑場靠西布置的格局,將主要建筑體量沿東側布置,避免對西側城市公園界面形成壓迫。操場逆時針扭轉15°,在場地西南側形成放大的入口廣場和更加宜人開放的公共共享城市界面。

 
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5 / 20 program layout


The field is elevated, moved at a higher floor 5m above the street level. This other operation elevates the main ground of the campus, creating a common and covered podium which organizes all the most public facilities of the school such as indoor and semi-indoor sports fields and an auditorium. The street level at the North-West corner of this podium is used as temporary parking spaces and pick-up points that absorb the heavy traffic load generated by influx of 3000 students.

抬升至一層高的操場與教學樓裙房延伸相接的看臺整合了校園中重要的室內外運動文化設施和開放空間。位于場地的西北側的操場下方灰空間則成為地面臨時停車區和家長接送等待區,最大成熟度地內化和緩解學校為周邊道路帶來的潛在交通壓力。

 
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6 / 20 program layout


The dorms, the highest and densest building of the campus, are kept to the South edge to avoid blocking sunlight to the neighboring hospital that sits on the North side of the plot, where the teaching volumes are allocated. These volumes subtly fold towards the sports field, generating a series of East-Westview corridors that open up towards the Central Park and Futian CBD skyline. This linear arrangement of volumesforms sequencesof spaces in-betweenand activates left-over areasgenerated by the complicated configuration of the site boundary, which are ultimately used as spatial hybrids to mediate between the buildings and thelandscape.

為避免對北側醫院病房樓造成日照遮擋,我們將高層的宿舍體量靠南側布置,而更水平向的教學區居于北側。輕薄的建筑體型呈南北向線性布置,優化教室通風采光的同時在場地內外創造東西向視覺通廊,最大化向中心公園和福田CBD天際線的視野。平行交織并向田徑場微折的教學樓巧妙的吸納了不規則的用地紅線所造成的一系列邊角空間,使整個校園環境成為建筑景觀密不可分的有機整體。協調高密度的空間條件,宿舍樓用足限高,解放更多的占地給教學空間。

 
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7 / 20 physical model


The volumes are organized as interconnected finger-like slabs with a North-South orientation, a common typology that minimizes structural costs, maximizing common spaces of mediation (bridges, elevated plazas, sheltered performance alleys). What holds together the slabs is a plugged-in LOOP-a “social band” designed to organizethe campus life, privileging social experiences in spite of what commonly define a campus: social segregation.

在如此高密度的場地條件下,精確的日照模擬分析引導教學樓坡屋面進一步采取高低錯落的體型變化,不僅保證所有普通教室及各學科教室完全滿足規范的日照要求,同時形成連綿起伏的天際線,創造出一系列空間體驗各異的屋頂花園。建筑體型進一步分裂、抬升,連續的空中活動圈“THE LOOP”串聯起一系列尺度高低各不相同的架空層,提供了視野極佳的第二地面。

 
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8 / 20 the public podium


Based on a careful study of the brief, the programs is organized according to set levels of privacy, a strategy that creates macro-zones working onthe horizonal and vertical axes. The most public functions that could benefit nearby communities are located in the lower part of the buildings and towards the West side: the sports facilities and theauditoriumare hosted within the podium, semi-underground, while the exhibition center and public lobby are public accesses to the sports center.

我們對任務書進行了嚴謹的分析和解讀,并將使用功能從更私密到更公共依次排序,在垂直和水平雙向度實現區域劃分。更公共且未來可與社區開放共享的功能向下、向西布置:室內外運動設施、演藝中心位于操場下方的裙房中并局部下沉。

 
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9 / 20 the main entrance6


The West is a permeable infrastructural interface that folds upward and presents a welcoming gesture to the street, challenging the traditional school fence that renders impossible any communication between the school and its surroundings.

校史展覽和運動公共接待前廳沿西界面布置,打破原有校園單一的圍墻界面,成為具有功能和歡迎姿態的積極城市界面。

 
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10 / 20 program layout


Given the specific circulation requirements of a boarding school, the main entrance is located closer to the lobby of the dorms. The large opening of the massive concrete structure of the elevated sports field provides a canopy to the plaza. This is a way of entering the school which emphasizesa monumental sequence: the space of an (open) community. Such plaza sits at the junction between the lobby of the dorms and the teaching tower, working as a hub that efficiently directs daily commute between the dorm, the classrooms and the canteen.

考慮到全寄宿學校特殊的動線特征,主入口的布置與宿舍最為鄰近。帶有巨大天井的跑道下方的高架空間成為一個具有特殊儀式感的入口廣場,便利分流至宿舍大堂和教學區門廳。食堂則成為兩個區域的中轉站,適合“宿舍-早餐-教室”和“教室-晚餐-宿舍”的早晚高峰人流。

 
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11 / 20 elevation


60 general classrooms where students stay for more than 50% of everyday time, are granted best solar access and evacuation efficiency, and they are placed all within the first 5 floors to allow students to easily access the open playground. Since it is impossible to avoid high-rise buildings given the site FAR, the roof of the podium is designed to work for fire emergencies, thus reducing the “evacuation height”. A number of flexible teaching spaces are placed in-between general classrooms and labs, providing buffering zones utilizable by both. These spaces sittingat elevated floorsare designed with variable classrooms sizes, and provideareas for a potential future expansion of the school.

60個行政班普通教室日常使用頻率最高,因而優先排列于教學區五層以內滿足日照的區域,便于學生在有限的課間十分鐘到戶外活動和緊急情況下的疏散需求。雖然在緊張的用地環境中我們無法避免在教學區內設置高層建筑,但通過在消防上將裙房屋面處理為安全場地,降低建筑物的消防層高,使得各學科教室也能排列在消防高度的五層以內,這是鞏固高密度校園的疏散安全的重要環節??悸塹轎蠢礎靶姓?走班制”并行的使用場景,靈活教室被布置于普通教室和其他各學科教室之間的架空層內,分隔靈活,主題可變,最大程度促進資源共享,避免閑置,也為福田中學未來教學改革更加個性化的課程設置做好準備。

 
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12 / 20 multiple grounds


“Multiple Grounds” is the principle that maximizes the amount of active surfaces, splitting and displacing them on different interrelated and interconnected levels. It is a strategy that works particularly well for a high-density campus, especially with a distributed network of ever changing outdoor spaces and nodal filters that can facilitate the diversification of connections and the typology of enclosures. “Multiplying” is the strategy that smoothens up the transition between the landscape and the building. Given the extreme density of activities on the site, it avoids the creation of a final massing that is oppressive and self-imposing.

多層地面是垂直校園體系在高強度開發的情況下保證校園空間品質的重要策略。它試圖構建一個立體的社交空間格局,在高密度的校園環境中最大限度的引入自然,強化建筑與景觀,室內與室外的融合。高效利用下沉庭院、裙房頂面、建筑物屋面,最大化室外和半室外活動空間,通過一系列空中連廊、架空層、屋面花園構成豐富多元又尺度宜人的校園空間體驗。

 
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13 / 20 multiple grounds


The zones of the classrooms, dorm and public facilities are connected at the 5-9m podium level and at the 20-25m loop level. These thick connections provide students a number of alternative paths in their daily commuting within the school.

教室、宿舍和公共空間這些不同功能區域相互連接,形成了處于30-40米標高的屋面平臺、20-25米標高的空中活動圈和5-9米標高的操場與裙房屋面三個主要層次。

 
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14 / 20 the sky loop


The LOOP is not just a simple collection of bridges connecting the school buildings, but rather a distributed system of diverse social spaces taking the shape of seating areas, performance ramps, amphitheaters, roof gardens, climbing walls,etc.

空中活動圈”THE LOOP”不是一個簡單的連廊系統,而是一個由樓梯、坡道、大階梯、架空層、屋面花園、攀巖墻等串聯起來的連貫的社交空間體系。它連接了校園中最為公共的使用功能——教學區靈活教室、宿舍共享學習區、露天階梯教室——這一系列非正式集合空間和創新啟發式的學習空間,鼓勵師生之間的交流、共享與碰撞隨時隨地自然發生。

 
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15 / 20 the sky loop


It strategically connects all the most public elements of the school (flexible classrooms, open theaters, common study areas), promoting and inspiring spontaneous communication and exchanges between students and the teaching staff.

THE LOOP營造了20余處尺度、高低、視野、圍合感各不相同的室外和半室外空間,成為學生日常的發現與驚喜的來源。

 
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16 / 20 the sky loop


The horizontal loop connects all the teaching towers whilst the vertical loop navigates through this high-rise tower of the dorms. The LOOP works as a shortcut between the dorms and the classrooms, effectively reducing vertical distances, a circulation scheme that works particularly well in such a high-rise school campus.

空中活動圈由串聯教學區各建筑的水平400米LOOP和宿舍樓垂直200米LOOP組成,并在其間的藝術傳媒科創中心屋面形成一個厚的連接。它不僅在20米的高空塑造了一個視野極佳的第二地面,也成為宿舍與教學樓之間的“捷徑”。它不僅提供了一種新的交通方式,同時也將為高層建筑的宿舍樓以中央架空層為界劃分成上下兩個多層建筑,形成一個適合垂直校園體系的交通系統。

 
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17 / 20 the stadium


The football field with the running track is an important symbol of the school history. It is also the largest facility to be shared with the adjacent neighborhood. Rather than passively accepting the fact that it consumes nearly 1/3 of the buildable area, we decided to turn it into the center of the campus, and its seating areas become a smooth surface bridging the level of the running track (+5m)and the elevated ground (+9m), creating a stadium-like enclosure.

占據近一半場地資源的400米田徑場是福田中學田徑特色的標志,也是周邊重要的設施。與其被動接納,不如將其作為校園場所精神的核心來設計。結合提升的操場和看臺,塑造有儀式感的空間體驗,形成一個類似古希臘劇場的高度向心的校園空間??刺ㄔ誄〉匚韃嘞蟶戲?,在看臺下方容納了展覽中心和運動中心前廳向社會開放,并營造了一個連續的風雨廊式的城市界面。起伏的廊橋和坡道將人們從街道高度帶入操場層高度,也提供了與對面中央公園的人行天橋的連接。暴露的粗獷的混凝土結構和裸露的看臺階梯的下表面塑造了一個運動場式的室內空間性格??刺ㄔ諼髂喜嚳鸕階罡?,它創造了一個具有吸引力和歡迎姿態的巨構的校園入口空間,將人流導入豐富的校園空間序列。

 
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18 / 20 ecological strategy


Futian Campus attempts at demonstrating a number ofdesign principles inserted in a critical context forged by dramatic density, shaping an environmentally friendly complex open to the city. The high porosity of the massing maximizes natural ventilation and shading, utilizing a passive energy saving strategy that does not need to rely on expensive technologies. The translucent second skin made of louvers and shutters mediates the need of maximum sunlight of the classrooms and shenzhen’s strong solar conditions. A number of covered and semi-covered outdoor spaces are the perfect places for sun shading and rain protection and specifically adjusttoShenzhen’s subtropical climate.

每日生活的校園是學生們自然觀、環境觀形成的重要場所,塑造一個對環境與能源友好的校園是必須完成的任務。在建筑層面,我們的方案采用適合亞熱帶氣候的被動式生態節能策略??煽裊⒚嬲諮舭僖緞緯煽珊粑摹敖ㄖ砥ぁ?,進一步平衡教室對最大化采光和深圳地區遮陽的矛盾需求。輕薄而多孔的建筑體型利于過渡季自然通風。一系列架空層和連橋結構提供了大量遮陽遮雨的檐下灰空間,并在雨天提供了連續的遮蔽路線

 
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19 / 20 stormwater management


At the campus scale, a 3-dimensional system of green spacescreate aninterconnected ecological infrastructure. Various sunken gardens increase the permeability of the podium, allowing natural light and ventilation to access underground programs, generating meanwhile ample rain gardens for ground-water recharge. The planting strategy focuses on a careful selection of native local plant communities to lower long-term management costs.

在校園景觀層面,我們希望福田中學成為一個促進物種多樣性的海綿校園。東高西低的校園布局使得覆土種植真草的足球場能與原福田中學操場草坪一樣,繼續與中心公園實現生態聯動,供鳥類自由的棲居、覓食。操場、裙房屋面、空中活動圈和屋頂都布置豐富的景觀綠化,成為一個立體的生態和雨洪管理系統,減緩極端降雨天氣下雨洪對城市管道的壓力。

 
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20 / 20 masterplan


Adapting to the different functional requirement of the various locations, the plants selection considers animal food provision, organic farming for education, leisure activities of the students as well as stormwater management. The “greens” are thus beyond a tool for campus beautification. They are instead ecological means that provide environmental benefits as well as being valuable education materials for the students.

通透多孔的裙房布置了尺度與深度不一的下沉庭院,平衡高密度校園與海綿城市原則之間的矛盾,在允許首層和地下一層使用空間獲得良好的自然通風和采光的同時,提供更多可下滲的海綿體,促進地下水的補給和水循環,真正實現整個校園的低影響開發。在配植方面,我們采用當地植物,種類兼顧農業教育、學生休閑、鳥類取食、雨洪管理的目標,這樣的策略使得校園景觀不僅具有充分的休閑和觀賞價值,更有真正的生態與基礎設施價值。